Born May 10, 1870, Viipuri. Died March 16, 1949, Saltsjöbaden, Sweden.
Bachelor of Arts, 1893, Master of Arts, 1894, and Doctor of Philosophy (General History), 1900, Imperial Alexander University.
Docent, General History, 1906–27, Imperial Alexander University / University of Helsinki
Professor of General History, 1927–37, Åbo Akademi
Author and journalist
Founder member, Institut d’histoire de la révolution française, 1936
Order of the Cross of Liberty, 2nd Class, 1918
Knight, Order of the White Rose of Finland, 1945
Written by Riitta-Ilona Hurmerinta
Translated by John Calton